Rinchen Terdzo

Changing Scenes

January 27th, 2009 by Walker Blaine

January 26th

First some updates. Lhuntrul Rinpoche has returned to the empowerments. His recovery from the chicken pox took the usual two weeks. I’d hoped that the initial estimates had been right, and I am sorry for not letting you know sooner. Khandro Tseyang was also ill for a few days last week due to a food allergy. Everyone is happy to see them back on the dais. The space beside throne has resumed its usual shoulder-bumping bustle. The reading transmissions will begin again in a few days.

Carlo Tomassi and Ursula Von Vacano’s website is www.theatre-tangente-vardar.com. Their work with the shadow play is an amazing story. The website is in French and it will give a good sense of their theater company and all of their work. It includes seven minutes of video. The production of the Buddha’s life will be presented here again in the local Indian dialect. I really think this is one of the most wonderful, modern yet ancient presentations of dharma I’ve seen in a while. It has already been presented in France and Cambodia, and I hope that it can be brought to many other places. [The photos in this blog entry were taken my Ursula.]

We ended a little early today by finishing the Vajrapani section. Often we’ll set foot in a new section before closing for the day, but it seems the Amrita section, the fourth logos, has five interconnected empowerments at the start. Advanced reports tell us that the shine is being totally rearranged for this logos. I must add that Patricia has had a four day streak of catching empowerments that the monastery missed when they prepared their Tibetan list. While this may sound impressive, one has to note that His Eminence is the one who has to proceed page by page through the text. He is still finding a hidden section here and there that everyone else, but the chopons have missed.

Each day we continue to notice the signs of the end of “winter”. Cold showers seem less of a hassle than a month ago, the cold stone floors have become soothing to walk on barefoot, even late at night. More people seem to be wearing hats or draping shawls on their heads even during the short walk to the monastery. I rest my mind with the fact that there is more than a month to go and it is still January.

Arts and Entertainment

January 26th, 2009 by Walker Blaine

January 25th 2009

This evening we had a shadow play produced by European Ripa Sangha members Carlo Tomassi and Ursula Von Vacano. This project had been underway for many weeks of rehearsals during the morning lungs. A shadow play, in case you have not seen one, is performed on a white screen with bright lights shining behind it. Then cut out, silhouetted figures are moved behind the screen with thin sticks. The figures can be made bigger and smaller depending on how far they are held from the lights.

Tonight’s performance happened in the huge monastery courtyard. Because it was Sunday a large number of Tibetans from the different camps were able to attend. Sundays always see bigger crowds at the empowerments and more tourists. During the afternoon break today I was surrounded by a large group of Indians and asked to pose in five or six photographs.

The stage for the shadow play screen was about ten feet wide and stood about six feet over the ground. It was framed out of thick bamboo posts and beams covered with assorted pieces of fabric. Ten colorful Tibetan prayer flags were strung across the top. There was ground seating for about fifty feet in front of it, and then several rows of dignitary seating for His Eminence, the Sakyong, the other teachers, the Ripa family and so forth. Behind them stood row after row of onlookers. I would say that a thousand people altogether were seated under the dark new moon and bright stars when all was ready to begin.

The feature was The Life of the Buddha, from his birth to his enlightenment to his first teachings. Carlo Tomassi and Ursula Von Vacano produced a similar, but far more elaborate production of this in France last year receiving mainstream critical acclaim. The website for their theater company will be posted shortly. It includes seven minutes of video. The Orissa production was much less elaborate than France, with every bit created here from scratch. I was astounded by the blend of art, imagination and delight in the project. Local musicians provided the accompaniment and sound effects with voice, Tibetan and western guitars, drums and hauntingly beautiful Tibetan flute melodies.

We started with the birth of Siddhartha Gautama who was to become Buddha, the Awakened One, upon his enlightenment. I thought it would all be in Tibetan, but the two monk-narrators first read the descriptions of each secessive scene in English, then Tibetan before the curtain was parted and the action began. The Buddha’s birth was complete with the infant Gautama taking seven steps on miraculously blooming lotuses. A bell chimed with each step and in the end Gautama lept back up into his mother’s arms.

Many things can be portrayed with shadows and light that in the western entertaiment industry can cost thousands or millions of dollars to produce. For example, walking on water was featured during the section of the Buddha’s training with teachers before enlightenement. The Buddha would sink in the water, then rise up again to follow his his early master. Gradually he became more accomplished. At enlightenment during the defeat of the fearsome demon Mara, the Buddha touched the earth to indicate the earth was a witness to his awakening and we witnessed a gentle earthquake.

Humor and action were also in abundance. When still a prince, the Buddha trained in various martial and courtly arts. We watched an amazing sword fighting dual between the Buddha and his jealous cousin, Devadatta. When the two contestants became fatigued, they would rest and pant for breath. During the horse race (an obvious thematic nod to the Gesar epic thought this reviewer) one horse fell behind, lost its rider and finally had to be carried over the finish line.

The fantastic, stupendous performance had the entire audience quite rapt. Indeed some of youngest might have been quieter than during the empowerments. After the Buddha gave his first teachings in Sarnath with the wheel of dharma actually turning in the sky, a monastery rose up on screen, Rigon Thubden Mindrolling. Above it floated the crown of Padmasambhava. The dharma continues to this day, 2600 years of teachings for the benefit of beings.

Here is the music from the episode of prince Gautama’s enjoyments of courtly dancers before he renounced his kingdom.

Vajrasattva Fresco

January 26th, 2009 by Walker Blaine

This painting is part of a Taksham lineage grouping in the shrine room.

Yangdak Unseen

January 26th, 2009 by Walker Blaine

January 25th, 2008

Monk antics continue. Throughout the empowerments we are making small symbolic offerings of the world at different stages in the ceremonies. We do this by putting a pinch rice in our hands before making mudra, or gesture, with our hands to show the world according to an early cosmology—a central mountain with four islands surrounding it. We chant four lines of verse describing offering the purity of this world so that all beings may enjoy such an experience.

Then, we gently toss the rice up in the air. Usually. Sometimes one allows such rice to fall on a friend, but this afternoon a row of westerners was hit, I daresay was pelted, with a weighty spray of about a cup of rice from behind. It was an almost comical amount. All three of us sat composed so as not to arouse a burst of giggles from the young monastic perpetrators. After about a minute I casually turned around and looked back. Amidst a group of eight or nine year old monks was one monk who ordinarily sits in the second row with some of the lamas. My suspicion is that this one is a reincarnate lama himself. His general good humor, maturity and energy for a four year old seems almost unnatural and the lamas seem to keep a special eye on him. He was staring straight at me, laughing and the older boys were patting him on the back. A moment later he was gone.

Today we moved a through nearly half of the Yangdak empowerments. Again we are faced with a deity not included in the frescos in the shrine room. Yangdak is the wrathful manifestation of enlightened mind. Since we don’t have a picture here, I thought it might be interesting to include Trungpa Rinpoche’s description of Yangdag from the upcoming publication for the general public, Root Text Project Volume III: Vajrayana. This book should be released in a couple years. It is a compilation of Trungpa Rinpoche’s seminary teachings, including the vajrayana teachings given between 1973 and 1986. Acharya Judy Leif, the editor for the Root Text Project, granted permission for me to share material from the 8 logos section of the volume with you.

As a compliment to this, for those to whom Trungpa Rinpoche’s vajrayana materials may be new, we’ll start with a short quote from Jigme Rinpoche. Jigme Rinpoche addresses the relationship between Trungpa Rinpoche’s style of teaching and the traditional presentation of the vajrayana dharma.

Jigme Rinpoche:

“I do believe that Trungpa Rinpoche’s particular use of language is geared to a small western audience, during a particular time, an audience that did not have a traditional path or a culture built around it with vivid physical details about all the yidams [meditation deities]. He made the western audience understand the mandalas more on psychological terms. It is unusual to present the development of the different yidams on a psychological level instead of placing more emphasis on a vivid presentation in the physical world. His presentation is more directed to the mind.”

“I think what we get here in the East is still very much based on tradition, based on what is outer. Of course, the highest practitioners eventually relate to the mind level of what’s being manifested. But to a very ordinary practitioner, a real, vivid living world is presented physically in terms of the colors and forms [in the mandalas, paintings and so on]. There is a certain connection being built to a physical world of the yidam. There are a lot of steps involved, a lot of descriptions of what the yidam looks like and all that, very vividly and colorfully done, like the physical manifestation of a solid world. Trungpa Rinpoche was painting more from psychological paint. It’s easier for a western audience to click that way.”

“I think there is a good way of combining the two. You know, it’s like saying, ‘Here is what is eventually your mind’s manifestation, what it looks like. But until then, the real world is like this.’”

And now, here is the excerpt from the Root Text Project. In it, Trungpa Rinpoche talks about the charnel ground, taking delight in that situation. The charnel ground is where people are brought to die. It is the meeting ground between life and death, between samsara and nirvana, order and chaos. This kind of environment of birth, death and chaos is happening around us all the time. Our experience is always manifesting these qualities in one way or another. The wrathful yidams are generally pictured as existing in this kind of situation.

Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche:

“The first Logos is called Yangdak, which means completely pure, and is connected with the eastern section of the mandala. Yangdak is blue in color and is connected with the vajra family. The philosophy behind this Logos is that of holding the Buddha in your hand. The idea is that Buddha, or any kind of notion of enlightenment, is not a big deal. Looking back from the enlightenment point of view you see that the notion of attaining enlightenment is very small thinking. You can actually see beyond that. Yangdak is connected with the idea of taking delight in the charnel ground as the most luxurious place of all. So with Yangdak we have the idea of holding the Buddha in your hand and the idea of taking delight in the charnel ground of phenomenal experience.”

Blessings and Contemplative Excitement

January 26th, 2009 by Walker Blaine

January 24th 2009

Here are a couple of photos of a blessing in action last week. The recipient is Mike Schaeffer, a member of the Ripa sangha. Mike was in the middle of making offerings to the teachers, monastics and lay people during the afternoon tea. For the last few weeks Mike has been commuting between the empowerments and work in Hyderbad in order to attend the abhishekas during the weekends. The commute requires a grueling 8 to12 hours of continuous travel each way. Those of you who’ve travelled in India know this requires very solid dedication.

At breakfast Saturday morning Mike asked a few of us what’s new. Since Mike knows what it’s like here first hand (the same thing every day for the most part), and the rest of us knew Mike, we all sat silently for quite some time. Finally, one of us piped up with, “Well, there was that black butterfly that came in the shrine room when we started the black Hayagriva empowerments.” Then we all got excited, saying that was a big event.


January 25th, 2009 by Walker Blaine

Here is an statue of Vajrasattva from the uppermost shrine room at the monastery.

Photograph by Christoph Schoenherr.

Two New Sections, A Yogi, More with Jigme Rinpoche

January 25th, 2009 by Walker Blaine

January 24th 2009

Today was a more varied day than usual. It started with the appearance of a Hindu yogi waiting near the door to the shrine room to greet His Eminence. I could only see him from a distance, a small, older man wearing thick red top, yellow lungi, and carrying a tin beggar’s cup. His dark hair was bound into a thick round topknot on top of his head. One or two old rosaries hung from his neck. His eyes seemed both soft and sharp, and his forehead bore white and red tikas, marks of daily ritual practice. There are a great many serious spiritual practitioners like this wandering the cities, towns and remote regions of India. Some of them are quite formidable, wear no clothes and have dreadlocks that have grown from head to foot. Some wear the dress of one or another sect or austerity. Many of them are men, but there are some women. Some of these meditators have great spiritual power.

We finished the Black Hayagriva empowerments in short order today, and moved from the practices of enlightened speech to those of enlightened mind. The third logos is named Yangdak, or Completely Pure, as Trungpa Rinpoche translated it. The siddha who transmitted this practice to Padmasambhava was named Humkara. This logos has a peaceful aspect, Vajrasattva, and a wrathful aspect, Vajra Heruka (often people say Yangdak for the wrathful aspect.) Along with these is a related practice of Vajrapani. Manjushri, Avalokiteshvara and Vajrapani are known as the lords, or protectors, of the three families. These three bodhisattvas represent the wisdom, compassion and power of the Buddha.

The Vajrasattva empowerments were brief. There were only two. There was one Vajrasattva empowerment given as part during the tantra section in December. There are also instructions for several other Vajrasattva practices in the tantra section. There are six Vajrasattva cycles in the sadhana section of the Rinchen Terdzo, and we are puzzling over where they wind up in Karmapa Khakyab Dorje’s outline. They seem to be in several sections other than Vajrasattva. One abhisheka is included in the atiyoga section possibly because Vajrasattva is seen as the transcendent buddha who is the source of the dzogchen teachings. After the two peaceful empowerments we moved the wrathful section, the empowerments of Yangdag or Vajra Heruka.

During an interview earlier in the week I asked Jigme Rinpoche about Vajrasattva’s place in the scheme of things. Vajrasattva is sometimes referred to as the lord of all the families, meaning all the families of buddhas. I wondered about the relationship between Vajrasattva and the sadhanas of the hundred peaceful and wrathful deities in the tantra section. In the following edited section of an interview, Jigme Rinpoche describes how the practitioner sees the mandala. He is referring to how the practitioner sees the world informed by the experience of meditation.

Walker Blaine: The mahayoga sadhana section starts with Vajrasattva and the peaceful and wrathful deities (Tibetan: shitro) and the 8 logos come later. I wonder if there is a relationship between those and why everything isn’t categorized within the 8 logos. What is so special about those first two?

JR: The basic concept of the mandala is such that it depends on where you look. It depends on how you look at it, depending on your understanding, your level of development and capacity of mind, your level of direct perception, your level of experiences in past lives.

Each individual has a different way of seeing the mandala. One person looks at the mandala and sees the details: the complicated, intricate, enormous world of colors, magic, energies, forms, which are also completely filled with vast space.

Someone else may look at the mandala and have the skill or technique to view it as just five different groups, the five buddha fields, or five buddha energies.

The first one is seeing it the multitude, hundreds or thousands, as vast as the sky; bright, energetic, beautiful, colorful. And he may be completely absorbed into that, which is fine. But there comes a point when it needs to be brought together, because the point is not to get lost in infinite possibilities. So, someone else might see it as an expression of just five basic energies, and another might see it as an expression of just one central character.

WB: Like Vajrasattva?

JR: Yes, Vajrasattva. There is nothing more than the expression of the central figure, and if you miss that key point, you miss the whole point. That is the basic concept of tantric buddhas having less elaborate forms as five buddha families, and then more elaborated forms thatspread out into hundreds, thousands. And then when completely simplified as just one, it’s Vajrasattva. Rig chig means one buddha family where every buddha family is united. Dorje Sempa, Vajrasattva.

The Day in Words

January 24th, 2009 by Walker Blaine

January 23, 2009

Patricia Kirigin is reviewing the list of the empowerments bestowed thus far. When a finished draft is ready it will be posted in a link above the blog. For many of us a seventy page PDF will not be very enticing, and for some small group out there, it will be engrossing. However a taste of the list may be interesting for one and all, and with this in mind, I include today’s empowerments below.

The eminent translator Peter Roberts provided the English names for the abhishekas. He translated the titles of the empowerments and lungs when Tai Situ Rinpoche bestowed the Rinchen Terdzo a few years ago. When Patricia makes our daily list, she compares Peter’s work with titles of the Rinchen Terdzo abhishekas in Tibetan and English and makes changes based on what we’re learning here. As translators often say, nothing we’ve done is definitive and there are likely to be mistakes which we are very sorry for.

These titles and so forth are publicly known. It the custom to write a list of the empowerments for a book published after a Rinchen Terdzo or similar event concludes. The book will include the history of the lineage, a brief explanation of the Rinchen Terdzo, the names principle participants and so on. Preparations for the book for this Rinchen Terdzo are underway at the monastery.

Today’s list will give you a sense of the complexity of what is preserved in the collection. Reading it will give you a sense of why we stopped posting the empowerment lists in early December. Each empowerment leads to a large number of questions both on paper and when it is actually occurring. When I started researching the Rinchen Terdzo in the fall, I wrote Matthieu Ricard, one of the close students of the late Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche. He is extremely knowledgeable, genuine and generous. He said that as far as he knew in his 25 years of working with the text he’d heard of no analytical work done on it in English.

Below is Patricia’s list, minus the Tibetan fonts which are still clunky to read on some web browsers. The Wylie system lettering of the titles is included. Wylie is the method
Created by Turrell Wylie in 1940’s to transliterate Tibetan into Roman letters. It does not represent a phonetic way to read the Tibet. You’ll note that the titles have a poetic ring along with various Sanskrit and Tibetan words mixed in. Since these are wrathful titles describing practices that overcome our negativity, the titles are more pointed than in the peaceful section. I’ve inserted a note here and there to explain how to read the document.

23 January, 2009

dbang chen dregs pa kun ‘dul dbang
The Accomplishment of the Single Secret: the ripening empowerment of Maheshvara who tames all the arrogant spirits from the Liberation Bindu’s Spontaneous Liberation of View, in accordance with the manual adornment.
Tertön: Sherab Özer
Empowerment author: Jamgön Lodrö Thaye
(HETSR 422 LA) [His Eminence Tai Situ Rinpoche, empowerment #422, Tibetan volume letter LA]

bsnyen dbang
The recitation empowerment of Maheshvara who tames all the arrogant spirits from The Liberation Bindu’s Spontaneous Liberation of View
Tertön: Sherab Özer
Empowerment author: The terma text
(HETSR 423 LA)

bka’ srung gshog rgod ma’i srog dbang
The life-force-empowerment for the protector of that practice, Shog Göma (“the one with wildly flapping wings”)
Tertön: Sherab Özer
Empowerment author:
(not listed in HETSR) [Patricia found this text in the 15th Karmapa’s list and Penor Rinpoche’s list.]

rta phag yid bzhin nor bu’i dbang
The wish-fulfilling empowerment for the profound Dharma of Varahi and Hayagriva According to Union with the Supreme Wisdom
Tertön: Rigdzin Jatsön Nyingpo
Empowerment author: Jamgön Lodrö Thaye
(HETSR 424 LA)

gnam chos rta mgrin bar chad kun sel kyi dbang
The empowerment for the Hayagriva, who eliminates all obstacles, from the profound oral lineage of The Space-Dharma Mind Terma According to The Space Dharma’s Dharani-empowerment (Vol THI)
Tertön: Rigdzin Mingyur Dorje [Karmapa Khakyab Dorje’s manual lists this entry with Jatson Nyingpo, without mentioning Rigdzin Mingyur Dorje.]
Empowerment author: Karma Chagme
(HETSR 425 LA)

yi dam dgongs ‘dus rta mchog rol pa’i dbang ‘grel spyi sdom rtsa ba’i dbang chen mo/ padma r’a ga’i bum bzang ltar
The great root empowerment of the preparatory and main empowerments for the general summary of Hayagriva’s Display, from The Union of the Minds of the Yidams, according to The Excellent Vase of
Tertön: Taksham Samten Lingpa
Empowerment author: Jamgön Lodrö Thaye
(HETSR 426 LA)

rtsa gum spyi’i rje gnang/ rta mgrin yi ge drug mo’i rje gnag/ gcig shes kun grol ltar
The authorization of the blessing of the six syllables for the Hayagriva of Hayagriva’s Display from The Union of the View of the Yidams, a general authorization of the three roots, according to The One Thing that Liberates All
Tertön: Taksham Samten Lingpa
Empowerment author: Jamgön Lodrö Thaye
(HETSR 427 LA)

snyen brgyud rta mchog rol pa’i snying thig dbang/ rta mchog dgyes pa’i bzhad sgra ltar
The root empowerment and life-empowerment for the Heart Drop of Hayagriva’s Display from the oral lineage, combined with the profound instructions according to the terma text, according to The Laughter of Pleased Hayagriva
Tertön: Jamyang Khyentse
Empowerment author: Jamgön Lodrö Thaye
Author of the instructions: The terma text
(HETSR 428 LA)

zab bdun zangs byang ma’i rta mgrin dbang zab yang phyungs dmar po’i rtsa dbang
The root empowerment for The Red Expelling Profound Powerful Hayagriva from The Seven Profundities’ Copper Mountain Manual, in accordance with the terma text
Tertön: Chogyur Lingpa
Empowerment author: The terma text
(HETSR 429 LA)

de’i gtor dbang
The torma empowerment for The Essential Meaning of Hayagriva from the scriptural tradition of The Seven Profundities’ Copper Mountain Manual, in accordance with The Dew Drop of the Lotus
Tertön: Chogyur Lingpa
Empowerment author: Jamgön Lodrö Thaye

End of Red Hayagriva Padma Speech Section

Wrathful Hayagriva, extremely wrathful Black Hayagriva: [KKD vol 101, p.659]

rta mgrin nag po’i sgrub thabs kyi rjes gnang/ bgegs ‘dul ral gri gnam lcags ltar
The authorization for the sadhana of black Hayagriva, in accordance with The Sword of Sky-Iron That Subdues Evil Spirits
Tertön: Bodhisattva Dawa Gyaltsen
Empowerment author: Jamgön Lodrö Thaye
(HETSR 432 LA)


January 23rd, 2009 by Walker Blaine

The Sakyong’s Role

January 23rd, 2009 by Walker Blaine

January 22nd

I want to add more about how the Rinchen Terdzo is being bestowed upon the Sakyong and the others in the assembly. The Sakyong is the main focus during these empowerments. Frequently, His Eminence will start by empowering the Sakyong alone, and then empower the other four recipients who come to the throne: Jigme Rinpoche, Lhuntrul Rinpoche, Tulku Kunkyab Rinpoche and the Sakyong Wangmo, Khandro Tseyang. After that, the Sakyong and the three other rinpoches bring the icons to the tulkus, khenpos, lamas and dignitaries. At the very end of the day, the Sakyong, Jigme Rinpoche and a number of the lamas and khenpos, move through the assembly with the various icons, vases, tormas and so forth from all of the empowerments bestowed that day. His Eminence sometimes joins this procession. Usually, he remains on the throne performing the concluding liturgies while the rest of us sing mantras from the different empowerments while the Sakyong and others walk through the rows of monks, nuns and lay people.

An example of the way the Sakyong appears to be the main focus of the empowerments is how His Eminence performs the sections of an abhisheka that involves bestowing a series of tsakali [small painted icons]. Tsakali often come in groups, such as the eight bodhisattvas or the seven precious possessions of a universal monarch. In these cases, His Eminence will bestow the empowerments related to the tsakali by displaying them one by one to the Sakyong while reciting the corresponding verses, visualizations and so on. After going through all eight individually with the Sakyong, His Eminence then gathers all the tsakali into one bunch in his hand, and recites the final verse or mantra of the series as he turns briefly to each of the other four main recipients in turn.

I asked Jigme Rinpoche for a picture of how the abhishekas are bestowed upon the different people at the Rinchen Terdzo. His edited remarks are below:

“A tulku is considered to be someone who is able to transmit the dharma to others. It doesn’t matter who the tulku is, every tulku is supposed to receive all the transmissions of the different lineages, particularly of their own lineage, through the abhishekas, tris [instructions], and lungs [reading transmissions]. A tulku is supposed to be a treasure vase of all the transmissions. Then, because of that, a tulku is able to transmit them to others. Now, whether the tulku will transmit them to others, or whether there will actually be others who request those transmissions, depends on each tulku’s situation. But generally, as a tulku they are seen as an object to whom all these precious transmissions should be given. That is one point.

“The second point is that out of all the tulkus at an empowerment like this, normally one or two are seen to be someone completely capable of passing on the transmission. At the time of an abhisheka like this one, someone will be officially appointed, so to speak, as someone of leading capacity from among all the people. This will be done at the end of the abhisheka. I believe most probably it will be the Sakyong and my brother as well, Lhunpo Tulku Rinpoche. I have already been appointed in Tibet when my father bestowed the Rinchen Terdzo the first time. I was one of the main people appointed as a holder of the transmission at that particular time.

“Then there are all the khenpos, tulkus, the Sakyong Wangmo, and my sisters. From our community, all the sisters are regarded in just the same way because they are the daughters of His Eminence; they are part of family. They usually receive such transmissions in case of the eventuality that they may be needed to transmit them if there is a necessity. Otherwise, somehow it is a male dominated lineage; the sons in the family continue to be the lineage holders.

“From an another perspective, one of the purposes of giving such a transmission is so that everybody who wishes to follow the path of vajrayana properly can have a transmission that will enable them to practice and move forward. Without this it is impossible to begin any practice in the vajrayana. You must have an abhisheka or initiation from a proper teacher. This is absolutely necessary for somebody to embark on a spiritual journey on the vajrayana level of practice. That’s why the empowerment is not only giving the transmission so that it continues in the future, but it also enables people to seriously practice all the different yidams, gurus, dakinis, whatever is applicable to them. Wherever they might go in the future, they will have the abhisheka inside them and so they can practice.

“So the abhisheka goes out in two ways: one for the purpose of holding that transmission, and the other for continuing the practice.”